CO 7


7.1: WW2+ National Service Propaganda


General Register Office: National Registration, and Census 1941, Jan 1939

HMSO: National Service, 25 Jan 1939

Ministry of Labour: Form of Application for National Service, Jan 1939

Ministry of Labour: National Service - Notes for Speakers I & II, Jan 1939

National Service Authorities: National Service and the Motorist, nd [early 1939]

Joint Recruiting Board: Application for Consideration by Technical Committee, May 1942


New Statesman:: Diary comment on Conscription propaganda, 12 Feb 1938

Economic League: National Service - Some Questions Answered, [May] 1939

Incorporated Society of Authors, Playwrights and Composers: National Service (letter & questionnaire), May 1939

Board of Deputies: Our Country Needs Your Help, nd [?1940]

War Facts Press: "Joining Up?" - A Handy Guide for Every Recruit, Apr 1940

Newcastle Echo, 14 Apr 1947, "Conscription is Essential", address by Arthur Blenkinsopp, MP

Lord Crook: "...and National Service", 1948


7.2: WW2+ Home Front Propaganda


Home Office: National Register notification form re National Registration Day, 29 Sep 1939

Home Office: National Registration Identity Card

Ministry of Food: General Ration Book

Ministry of Food: Ration Book Supplement

Ministry of Health: Government Evacuation Scheme, To Parents of Children, Oct 1939

City of Birmingham: Evacuation - Repayment of Billeting Charges, Oct 1939

Board of Education: The Service of Youth, Nov 1939

Home Office: The Protection of Your Home against Air Raids, 1938

City of Birmingham ARP: How to take care of your Respirator, nd

Lord Privy Seal: Your Gas Mask/Masking Your Windows, Jul 1939

City of Birmingham: Issue of Government Shelters & Appliances, 1939

Ministry of Home Security: Your Home as an Air Raid Shelter, 1940

City of Birmingham: Air Raid After Care Rest Centres, 1941

Ministry of Home Security: Phosphorus and other Bombs now being Used by the Enemy, 1942

Ministry of Health: If Hitler uses Blister Gas, 1942

HM Treasury: War Damage to Property, 1939

HM Treasury: War Damage Act 1941 (Part I) - Explanatory Notes, May 1941

HM Treasury: War Damage Act 1941 (Part II) -Explanatory Memorandum, Apr 1941

Board of Trade: Application for Insurance against War Damage

City of Birmingham: Advice to Water Consumers, 1939

Ministry of Information: Beating the Invader, May 1941

Ministry of Production: Industry and Invasion, Aug 1942

Ministry of Supply: These Metals are Wanted, nd

Ministry of Supply: Waste Rubber must not be Destroyed, 1942

National Savings Committee, Albert's Savings, nd

National Savings Committee, National War Bonds, nd

National Savings Campaign: War Weapons Week, Birmingham, 1940

Esher UD War Savings Committee: Salute the Soldier Week, 1944


Economic League: Industry and Defence, 1939

Yorkshire Evening Press:: Advice on protection of gas masks, 16 Nov 1939

National ARP Animals Committee, Enrolment Form [?1939]

Fed of Tenants' & Residents' Assns: War Injury and War Damage [?1940]


7.3: WW2+ National Service Acts and Regulations 1939-1960


Military Training Bill [1 May 1939]

Military Training Act 1939

Military Training (General) Regulations 1939

Military Training (Prevention of Evasion) Regulations 1939

Military Training Act 1939 and Reserve & Auxiliary Forces Act 1939 - Provision of monetary assistance to persons liable for training or service, in respect of dependants and certain other financial obligations

Military Training Act 1939 - Draft Order to be made under Section 11

Military Training Act 1939 and Reserve & Auxiliary Forces Act 1939 - Draft Order to be made under Sections 11 and 4 respectively

National Service (Armed Forces) Bill [2 Sep 1939]

National Service (Armed Forces) Act 1939

National Service (Armed Forces) (Prevention of Evasion) Regulations 1939

National service (Armed Forces) (Miscellaneous) Regulations 1939

National Service (Armed Forces) Proclamation [1 Oct 1939]

National Service (Armed Forces) (Isle of Man) Order 1939

National Service (Armed Forces) Act 1940

Ministry of Labour & National Service - Schedule of Reserved Occupations [Revision, May 1940]

National Service (Armed Forces) (Prevention of Evasion) (Amendment) Regulations 1940

National Service Bill [19 Mar 1941]

National Service Act 1941

Selected decisions by Umpire in respect of applications for postponement of liability to be called up [Apr 1941]

National Service (Civil Defence Force) Order 1941

National Service (Civil Defence) (Discharge and Transfer) Regulations 1941

National Service (Prevention of Evasion) Regulations 1941

National Service (Adjustment of Contracts) (Amendment) Regulations 1941

National Service (Postponement Certificates) (Amendment) Regulations 1941

Selected decisions by the Umpire during July 1941 in respect of applications for postponement of liability to be called up [Sep 1941]

National Service Bill [4 Dec 1941]

National Service (No 2) Act 1941

National Service - Women - Order approving Proclamation that certain women shall become liable to be called up [18 Dec 1941]

National Service (Miscellaneous) (Amendment) (No 3) Regulations 1941

National Service (Postponement Certificates) (Amendment) (No 2) Regulations 1941

National Service (Civil Defence Force) Order 1942

National Service - Order approving Proclamation directing that certain British subjects shall become liable to be called up [23 Jul 1942]

Allied Powers (War Service) Act 1942

National Service (Foreign Countries) Act 1942

National Service Act 1942

National Service - Order approving Proclamation that certain British subjects shall become liable to be called up [13 Jan 1943]

Allied Powers (War Service) Order 1943

Report of Prime Minister's Committee of Enquiry into Detention Barracks 1943

Reinstatement in Civil Employment Act 1944

Re-Allocation of Man-Power between the Armed Forces and Civilian Employment between Defeat of Germany and Defeat of Japan [Sep 1944]

Summary of second White Paper on Allocation of Man-Power, Manchester Guardian, 17 Nov 1944

Statistics relating to the War Effort of the United Kingdom [Nov 1944]

National Service (Release of Conscientious Objectors) Act 1946

Call Up to the Forces in 1947 and 1948 [May 1946]

National Service Bill [12 Mar 1947]

National Service Act 1948

National Service (Amendment) Act 1948

National Service Act 1950

National Service (Conscientious Objectors) Bill [H.L.] [3 Dec 1953 - Lord Chorley]


Civil Service Argus: "The Pacifist Vacancy Officer's Problem", 1935

Military Training Act 1939 - Explanatory Note

Ministry of Labour pro forma envelope for registration under MTA 1939 [May 1939]

Ministry of Labour form for verification of birth date of registrants under MTA 1939 [May 1939]

Registration Certificate under MTA 1939 [May 1939]

National Service (Armed Forces) Act 1939 - Explanatory Note [Oct 1939]

National Service (Armed Forces) Act 1939 - Explanatory Note with Appendix on Postponement Certificates Regulations 1939

Ditto [Feb 1940]

Postcard for NSA registrant to notify change of address [Jun 1940]

National Service (Armed Forces) Acts - Explanatory Note

Notice to Appellants re appearance before Appellate Tribunal [1941]

Questionnaire re above [1941]

Registration for Employment Order 1941, Notice to Women who have Registered

Army Bureau of Current Affairs: “Show me the way to go home” – the official plan of release, 23 Sep 1944

National Service Acts 1948-1950 - Information about National Service [Mar 1951]

National Service Acts - Deferment of Call-Up [Aug 1951]

Reserve and Auxiliary Forces (Protection of Civil Interests) Act 1951 - Notes for Guidance [Jul 1953]

Report of delegation to Ministers on enabling NS reservists to apply to CO Tribunals, Manchester Guardian 16 Jan 1954


7.4: WW2+ Emergency Powers, 1939-1945


Emergency Powers (Defence) Act 1939

Defence Regulations 1939

Order amending Defence (General) Regulations 1939 [Nov 1939]

Emergency Powers (Defence) Act 1940

Order amending Defence (General) Regulations 1939 [May 1940]

Specified Classes of Persons (Registration) (No 1) Order 1940

Conditions of Employment and National Arbitration Order 1940

Newcastle Journal and North Mail, 11 Nov 1940, "Call to Youth to Aid the Nation"

Order amending Defence (General) Regulations 1939 [Jan 1941]

Fire Prevention (Business Premises) Order 1941

Civil Defence Duties (Compulsory Enrolment) Order 1941

Civil Defence Duties (Compulsory Enrolment) - Exemption from Enrolment for Fire Prevention Duties or Release from Duties [Sep 1941]

NCCL, 1 Sep 1941, "Civil Defence Workers Test Case"

Newcastle Evening Chronicle, ? Sep 1941, "Register for firewatching on Sept 14, 20, 21"

Essential Work (General Provisions) (Amendment) Order 1941

Order amending Defence (General) Regulations 1939 [Dec 1941]

Registration of Boys and Girls Order 1941

Board of Education Circular - Registration of Youth - 1941

Daily Express, 7 Jan 1942, "When 16s and 18s register at the end of the month - Boys' leisure will be controlled"

Newcastle Evening Chronicle, 9 Jan 1942, "Job-Direction Refusals - Labour Ministry's Procedure"

Civil Defence (Employment and Offences) Order 1942

Air Council Instructions made under Defence (Women's Forces) Regulations 1941 [Jan 1942]

Civil Defence Regions Order 1942

Order amending Defence (Local Defence Volunteers) Regulations 1940 [Jan 1942]

Order amending Defence (Armed Forces) Regulations 1939 [Jan 1942]

Civil Defence (Employment and Offences) (No 2) Order 1942

National Fire Service (General) (No 2) Regulations 1942

Civil Defence (Employment and Offences) (No 4) Order 1942

Essential Work (General Provisions) Order 1942

Home Security Circular: Measures to enable whole-time Civil Defence Personnel to make a more active contribution to the general war effort 88/1942

Police and Civil Defence Duties (Tribunals) Order, 1942

War Zone Courts - General Explanatory Memorandum, 1942

City of Birmingham ARP: Certificate of Authority, 1942

Order amending Defence (General) Regulations, 1939 [Jul 1942]

Civil Defence Duties (Compulsory Enrolment) Order, 1942

City of Birmingham: Civil Defence - Fire Guards, 1942

City of Birmingham: Civil Defence Duties - Enrolment Notice, 1942

Fire Prevention (Business Premises) (No 3) Order, 1942

Employment of Women (Control of Engagement) Order, 1943

Control of Employment (Directed Persons) Order, 1943

Board of Education/Scottish Education Dept: Youth Registration in 1942

Defence (Fire Guard) Regulations, 1943

Fire Guard (Local Authority Services) Order, 1943

City of Birmingham: Fire Calls notice, 1943

Fire Guard (Business and Government Premises) Order, 1943

Fire Guard (Medical and Hardship Exemptions) Order, 1943

Control of Employment (Notice of Termination of Employment) Order, 1943

Defence (Fire Guard) Regulations, 1943 - Explanatory Memorandum

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Duties of Occupiers, Fire Guard Leaflet 8, [Sep 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - General Position of Women), Fire Guard Leaflet 9 [Oct 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Position of Aliens, Fire Guard Leaflet10 [Sep 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Training: the Occupier's Duties, Fire Guard Leaflet 11 [Oct 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Selection of Persons to Perform Fire Guard Duty outside Working Hours, Fire Guard Leaflet 12 [Sep 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Joint and Combined Arrangements, Fire Guard Leaflet 13 [Sep 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises - Equipment and Amenities, Fire Guard Leaflet 14 [Sep 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Fire Brigades and Civil Defence Services at Business and Government Premises, Fire Guard Leaflet 15 [Sep 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Duty during Working Hours, Fire Guard Leaflet 16 [Sep 1943]

Fire Guard (Business & Govt Premises) - Paid Fire Guards, Fire Guard Leaflet 17 [Oct 1943]

Control of Engagement Order, 1945


Home Office: War Emergency - Information and Instructions, 1939


Labour Research Dept: Law in Wartime - A Worker's Guide, 1939

S Evelyn Thomas: Everyman’s Guide to the War Regulations, Donnington Press, 1939


Ernest Bevin: The War and the Workers, Labour Party, 20 0ct 1940

Ernest Bevin: The Production Effort, Institution of Production Engineers, 26 Sep 1941

Labour Research Dept: Fire Watching - The Worker's Rights, 1941

Labour Reseach Dept: The Essential Work Order, 1941

Labour Research Dept: Fire Watching Up-to-Date, 1941

Lanour Research Dept: Canteens in Industry, 1941

Labour Research Dept: Essential Work Order - Questions and Answers, 1944


Labour Research Dept: Women in War Jobs, 1942

Army Bureau of Current Affairs: Women at War, 1942

Marx House: Women in the War Effort, 1942


Emergency Powers & Regulations - Report of Private Meeting to consider the Implications of the new Defence Regulations and the Emergency Powers Act, held at the instance of National Peace Council, 31 May 1940

NCCL: Freedom of the Press and the Defence Regulations, 22 Jan 1941


Prison Rules


Prison Rules,1933

Prison Rules, 1936

Prison Rules, 1938

Prison Rules, 1945


WJ Pendlebury: Precis of KRs and Manual of Military Law, by permission of HMSO


7.5: Conscription Propaganda post-1960


David L Edwards: National Service should be revived, Church Times, 25/8/61

[Cecil Rhodes]: 'National Service', Church News, June 1968

Charles Douglas-Home: 'A dwindling number of army recruits', Times, 6 Jun 1969

Times (leader): 'Youth in Search of a Role', 19 Jan 1970

Times: 'Seminar on conscription', 19 Jan 1970

Evening Standard (leader): 'Enough troops?', 23 Feb 1970

Alan Road: 'What did you do in the Cold War, Daddy?', ? Observer magazine, ? autumn 1970

MoD (advert): 'Volunteers are needed for three years National Service', Times, 19 Mar 1976

Ronald Mallone (letter): 'Conscription is no service', Guardian, 20 Sep 1978

Hugh Hebert: 'Give them a shovel or they'll pick up a brick', Guardian, 14 May 1982

Mark Urban: 'How conscription could cure Britain's defence budget problems', Independent, 9 Sep 1987

Mark Childs: 'Can National Service really make a come-back?', Independent, 11 May 1998


7.6: Conscription 'crisis' 1991


PPU: Worried about War? Act Now for Peace

At Ease: Going to War in the Gulf?

QPS: Conscientious Objection - What it means for you


Bill Hetherington: 'Call-up Confusion', The Pacifist, May 1991


Notes re 15 enquirers, 12 Nov 1990 - 30 Jan 1991

Denis Campbell: 'Draft excluders', Time Out, 21-28 Nov 1990

Correspondence, Miller Davidson, 11 Dec 1990 - 28 Jan 1991

Correspondence, Dorothy Spence, 5-24 Jan 1991

William Hetherington (letter): 'Conscientious objection', Independent, 10 Jan 1991

INLAP: 'Gulf Crisis - A legal appraisal for members of HM Services, 11 Jan 1991

Letter to Janie Hampton, 11 Jan 1991

Correspondence, Oldham Law Centre, 11-30 Jan 1991

Correspondence, Stradbroke Coll SU, 14 Jan - 14 Feb 1991

Commons Hansard Q Ken Livingstone/PM, 15 Jan 1991

Commons Hansard Q Harry Cohen/Def Sec, 22 Jan 1991

Commons Hansard Q Tam Dalyell/Emplt Sec, 29 Jan 1991

Correspondence, Robert Good, 15-18 Jan 1991

Correspondence, M Winters, 16 Jan - 11 Mar 1991

Letter to Judy Wood, 21 Jan 1991

Circular to Citizens Advice Bureaux, 22 Jan 1991

List of attenders at 'Conscription crisis' meeting, 23 Jan 1991

Ray Clancy: 'Objectors "should be told rights"", Times, 24 Jan 1991

Correspondence, Alison Hull, 24 Jan - 8 Feb 1991

Correspondence, Cindy Curtis & Angela Mactavish, 25 Jan - 7 Mar 1991

Letter to Sunday Telegraph, 28 Jan 1991

Correspondence, Tony Benn MP, 28 Jan 1991 - 12 Nov.1997

Student CND: Petition form against conscription

Liberty: list of solicitors, 28 Jan 1991

Julie Welch: 'Sons and scared mothers', Times, 30 Jan 1991

Correspondence, BV Abercrombie, 30 Jan - 8 Feb 1991

At Ease: Notes including personal account of discharge of reservist [1983]

NCCL: documents on 'Civil Liberties in Time of War', Feb 1991

Student Federation against the Gulf War, broadsheet, Feb 1991

Graduate Post: 'NUS helps students resist Gulf call-up', Issue 187 [c Feb 1991]

Times: 'Call-ups contested', 6 Feb 1991

Anonymous sick spoof of Call-up Notice, 6 Feb 1991

Bill Hetherington (letter): 'Flak attack', City Limits, 7-14 Feb 1991

Bill Hetherington: Letter to Peace News, 14 Feb 1991


CO 8


8.1: WW2+ Newscuttings


Raymond Boniface: CO Tribunals 2nd World War, Press Reports  (scrapbook)


Thomas Griffin: CO Tribunals 2nd World War, Press Reports (scrapbook)


Raymond Foxley: Cuttings re sacking as teacher, Torquay, 10 May – 6 Sep 1940


na: ''War Minister's Challenge to the Church - Leaders who spread pacifism', ?1937


na: 'Town thinks again about sacked CO', nd

na: 'Two objectors discharged', nd

na: 'No enemies - not even Hitler', nd

News Chronicle: ''Objector is Tongue-Tied', nd [1939-40]

na: 'Objections to war service', nd

na: 'Says He is Nagged Into The Army", nd

na: 'Son who aired war views', nd

na: 'Inconsistent consciences', nd

na: 'Young objector with German wife', nd

na: 'Arms factory clerk's objection to war', nd

Reynolds News: 'Full Of Fight, COs Will Not Resign', nd

Newcastle Evening Chronicle: 'Tribunal uproar', 12 Oct 1939

Daily Herald: ''Suicide "Logic For Objectors"', 4 Jan 1940

News Chronicle: 'Army father regarded as "Murderer"', 13 Jan 1940

The Star: 'No "Onward, Christian Soldiers" For Him', 15 Jan 1940

Daily Herald: '"No COs for us", say farmers', 15 Feb 1940

Daily Herald: 'Pacifist Held Up Raid Warning', 15 Feb 1940

Forward: 'Shettleston NCL' - Mock Tribunal, 24 Feb 1940

Daily Herald: 'Men Strike Rather Than Work With CO', 12 Mar 1940

New Statesman: ‘Last war’s history repeated’, 30 Mar 1940 [Kenneth MAKIN]

Daily Herald: ’ Women hiss as officer defends COs’, 5 Apr 1940

na [?News Chronicle]: 'Soldier Backs COs: Women Hiss Him', nd [5 Apr 1940]

Daily Herald: ''"You Earn My Contempt''': 11 Apr 1940

Evening Standard: 'Objectors Must Give Up Council Jobs', 5 Apr 1940

The Star: 'Stabbed Judge: Savage Rage Story', 18 Apr 1940

Daily Dispatch: ‘'"Conchie" Teachers to Be Sacked’, 26 Apr 1940

Forward: 'CO who fought in Spain', 18 May 1940

Sunday Graphic: ‘Girls Make Conchie Go’, 26 May 1940

The Star: 'My duty is to fight, pacifist tells tribunal', 14 Jun 1940

Sunday Dispatch: 'He won't help conchies', 23 Jun 1940

Daily Dispatch: ''Sack for COs and pacifists', 25 Jun 1940

Yorkshire Evening Press: 'Conscientious Objectors - York Council's decision', 30 Jul 1940

?Yorkshire Evening Press: 'Objectors' position', 31 Jul 1940

Newcastle Evening Chronicle: '"COs kicked" - Army Court allegations', 24 Mar 1941

News Chronicle: 'Objectors kicked by NCOs', 25 Mar 1941

New Leader: 'Two COs get twelve months', 'ILP Councillor Exempted',12 Jul 1941

New Leader: 'Our CO comrades', 11 Oct 1941

Newcastle Evening Chronicle: 'Man refused medical', 11 Nov 1941

Newcastle Evening Chronicle: 'Year's Gaol for two COs', 12 Nov 1941

Peace News: “Mr Bevin says Women Can’t be Forced”, 26 Dec 1941

na:;’The man who won't fight', 9 May 1942

Newcastle Evening Chronicle: '"CO" taken to be medically examined', 10 May 1942

Daily Mirror: 'Ethel Mannin's CO daughter fails', 16 May 1942

Newcastle Evening Chronicle: 'Gaoled after refusing medical', 29 Aug 1942

Croydon Times: ‘Actor sent to prison for three months’, 17 Jul, 1943 (transcript of cutting)

na (Sheffield): 'She prefers gaol to paying fine', 1943

na: '12 months for "Witness"', nd [1943]

na (? Stoke Evening Sentinel): ‘Jehovah’s Witness fined’, nd [1943/44]

Leonard Mosley: 'Nazi Officer Who Said: "You British Are Mad"', Sunday Graphic, 25 Jun 1944

The Friend: 'Young COs at Whan Cross', 5 Oct 1951

Peace News: ‘The first right – the right to live’, 30 Oct 1953

Peace News: ‘CO’s sentence reduced’, 25 Jul 1958

Mavis James: 'New Home for London CO Tribunals', Peace News, 16 Jan 1959

Mavis James: 'Odd happenings at the CO Tribunal', Peace News, 12 Feb 1959

Peace News: 'Tribunals must say why', 12 Jun 1959,

Peace News: '100 a year jailed', 27 Nov 1959

Bryan Reed: ‘End of call-up’, Peace News, 15 Jul 1960

Peace News: 'Call-up ends', 25 Nov 1960

Guardian: 'Reunion of 40 conscientious "Old Lags"', nd

Church Times: ‘National Servicemen held for 6 months after normal date for release’, 15/6/62

New Statesman, 12 Apr 1963, CBCO advert re reservists' call-up

New Statesman, 26 Apr 1963, CBCO advert re reservists' call-up


New Leader: 'Revolt against firewatching for bosses', 22 Mar 1941

New Leader: 'This is the Law about Firewatching', 26 Apr 1941

New Leader: 'How Forced Firewatching Works’, 12 Jul 1941

South London Press: 'Fire Guards who failed to do duty', 22 Oct 1943


8.2 WW2+ Articles


New Statesman: ‘Labour and Compulsory Military Service', 29 Apr 1939

Donald Standfast: 'Conscription', Regnal Magazine, June 1939

New Statesman: The Military Training Act', 22 Jul 1939

John Gollan: ‘Militiamen and the Movement’, [CPGB] Party Organiser, Aug 1939

Henry Carter: 'Conscientious Objectors in Wartime', Methodist Recorder, 12 Oct 1939

Norman E Forward: 'The Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tribunal', Christian Pacifist, Nov 1939

Hampstead ILP: 'Political objectors', New Statesman, 13 Jan 1940

Sunday Pictorial: 'Pacifists!', 2 Jun 1940

Sunday Pictorial: 'and Pansies', 9 Jun 1940

John McGovern: 'I interview Col Greenwood', New Leader, 22 Mar 1941

Henry Carter: 'COs - Prison Sentences: A Case for Redress', Manchester Guardian, 3 Nov 1941

"Gowrie": 'An Artist in Jail', Forward, 24 Feb - 7 Mar 1942

Amy Lewis: 'Registration and Service of Girls', The Friend, 3 Apr 1942

"A Visiting Magistrate": 'The Free Minded Scot', Forward, 12 Dec 1942

Economist: 'Conscription for Peace', 8 Jun 1946,

Albert D Belden: 'Stop the War-Machine Now', Cavalcade, 14 Dec 1946

Jack Sadler et al: Correspondence and reports re post-war conscription, Northern Echo, 20 Feb – 3 Mar 1947 & 23-26 Apr 1947

The Wayfarer: 'A Stand against Conscription', May 1947

PB Turnbull Edmunds et al: 'Southend and COs', The Friend, 21 Sep 1951

Sybil Morrison: 'Winston's Windfall', Peace News, 11 Jan 1952

Wallace Hancock: ‘Ourselves and Conscription’, Newsletter, Movement for a Pacifist Church, Aug 1953

Bernard Withers: 'Conscientious Objection', University Libertarian, Apr 1957

Hugh Brock et al: 'Conscientious objection in the nuclear age', Peace News, 23 Oct 1959

The Friend: ‘Faithfulness Counts’, 31 Jul 1970

John Ormerod Greenwood: ‘Organisation of Quaker Relief in WW2’ [photocopied extract from Quaker Encounters: Friends and Relief, William Sessions, 1975]

Harold Jackson: 'National Service - the real inside story', Guardian, 18 Mar 1987

Bernard Withers: ‘Object lesson’, Guardian, c 20 Mar 1987

J Duncan Wood: Memoir, The Friend, 18 Dec 1987

Financial Times: Photo of Swansea WW2 Tribunal (with article on nv resistance by John Rae), 20 Jan 1990

Leslie Groves: 'The Forgotten Army - Members of the NCC', RQ, Winter 1990-91

Cyril Selman: 'The Forgotten Army - The NCC', RQ, Spring 1991

Wendy Webster: 'The way we won the war', Independent on Sunday, 15 Dec 1991

AD Harvey: 'Whitehall's traces of Eng Lit', Independent, 24 Dec 1991

Yours Magazine: 'Olive Lewer-Clarke', Aug 1992

Sharon Goulds: 'Battle of the Soul', New Statesman, 9 Oct 1992

Tony Parker: '"You're a conchy?" he said, and hit me', Independent, 17 May 1993

Martin Wainwright: '"Conchie" reflects on the madness of it all', Guardian, 6 May 1995

"Shoreditch": 'Douglas Young', New Statesman, 19 May 1995

Ffinlo Costain: 'Remember the objectors', New Statesman, 26 May 1995

Derrick Molock: 'Will we ever learn?', New Statesman, 9 Jun 1995

Matthew Brown: 'Men at war - Would you refuse to fight?', Men's Quest, Jun 2000

Rae Street: 'Rose and Arthur Booth', IPB News, Feb 2003

John L Makin: ‘Pacifist Farming Communities in Lincolnshire in World War Two’, East Midland Historian, Vol 14, 2004

Juliet Gardiner: ‘Prisoners of Conscience’, History Today, Nov 2004

Malcolm Elliott: ‘Objection to National Service’, History Today, Dec 2004

William Hetherington: ‘Conchies’, History Today, Feb 2005


Robert Mackay: ‘”No place in the Corporation’s Service”: the BBC and Conscientious Objectors in the Second World War’ [Unpublished typescript]


8.3 WW2+ CO Reviews


Edward Blishen: 'Phantom Soldier' [Ernest Spring: Conchie], Guardian, 27 Dec 1975

E W Orr: Conscience, Government and War [Rachel Barker], RQ, Dec 1982

Alex Bryan: 'COs in World War Two' [Rachel Barker: Conscience, Government and War], The Friend, 11 Dec 1982

Florence Assie: Bloody Conchie … ! and Healing the Wounds [Alex Bryan], The Pacifist, Apr 1986

O F Yorke: Don’t you know there’s a war on? [Jonathan Croall], The Pacifist, May 1989


8.4: WW2+ CO Memoranda


Charles Hill: Memorandum on the Provisions of the National Service Acts 1939-41, c 1941

London Area PPU: Notes of meeting re women's conscription, Holborn Hall, 25 Jun 1941

Robert Pollard: Conscientious Objectors in Great Britain and the Dominions, reprint from unidentified journal, c 1946-47

Commission of the Churches in International Affairs (WCC & IMC): Proportion of British 1948 COs in Various Confessions [Extract from Study on the principles which should underlie legislation providing for conscientious objection], 1951

Anon: Memorandum on Military Service Regulations: Gt Britain, 1953

Anon: Conditional Exemption of COs in Great Britain [Extract from proceedings of conference of churches, government ministries and peace organisations, Schnitten Faunus, W Germany, 1956]

Ministry of Labour: Analyses of decisions of Local Tribunals 1949-60

PRO: Note of Ministry of Labour files re COs.


8.5: WW2+ Flyers and brochures


Joint Advisory Bureau

The Military Training Act, 1939

The National Service (Armed Forces) Act, 1939

Before the Tribunal, 1939


Manchester Joint Advisory Bureau: Notes for COs (reproduced in PN, 20/10/39



The Central Board for Conscientious Objectors and Its Work, 1940

Central Board for Conscientious Objectors, 1940

The Central Board for Conscientious Objectors: Its Work and Needs, (short version),1941

The Central Board for Conscientious Objectors: Its Work and Needs, (full version), 1941

CBCO Publications, 1940

CBCO Publications, 1941

For Your Urgent Attention, 1940

A Plea for Tolerance, 1941

Notes on Prison Routine, 1941

Tribunals for Conscientious Objectors, Rev 1943

National Service - A Guide for the CO, 1959


Fellowship of Conscientious Objectors

Conrad Scheinberg: A Week in Wandsworth, 1940

Some British Opinions on Conscientious Objectors, 1941


Fellowship of Reconciliation

Comments on the National Service (Armed Forces Act) 1939, 1939

Before the Tribunal, 1939


Friends Peace Committee

Alfred Braithwaite: Precedent and Present Testimony, 1939

The Christian and Conscription, 1953


Methodist Peace Fellowship

Henry Carter: The Conscientious Objector, The Church and The Tribunal, 1939


Baptist Union Young People's Department

Advice to Conscientious Objectors, 1939


Movement for a Pacifist Church of Christ

Wallace Hancock: Ourselves on Conscription, Newsletter, August 1953


International Bible Students Association

Jehovah’s Witnesses in Germany and Britain, 1939

To all the Brethren in Britain, 1942

JW COs imprisoned in Britain during WW2, 2005


Independent Labour Party

A 'Twenty' Explains Why I Won't Go, 1939

Bob Edwards: Conscription in Peace Time, 1946


John McGovern: I interview Col. Greenwood, 1941


No Conscription Council

No Conscription in the Peace (Petition), 1945

John Middleton Murry, A Plain Man Should oppose Conscription, 1946


8.6: WW2+ Circulars


CBCO: Conscientious Objectors in Great Britain, 1939-1945


CBCO: National Service Bill1941

CBCO: National Service Bill in Committee, 1941

CBCO: Answer's to last month's questions, 1941

CBCO: National Service (No 2) Bill, 1941

CBCO: National Service (No 2) Bill - Proposed amendments, 1941

CBCO: Tribunals - and Applicants, 1943

CBCO: Recall of Z and G Reservists, 1951

CBCO: Military Conscription in Great Britain, 1953


CBCO Press Service: 'First Woman CO', 'Woman CO Gaoled', '18 Months for Refusing Medical', 1942


CBCO: Officers of Regional Boards for COs, 1945

CBCO: Bureaux list, 1944

CBCO: Bureaux list, 1945

CBCO: Bureaux list, 1946

CBCO: Bureaux list amendments, 1952


Letter, Joyce ? (FoR) to Winifred Brown, 5/5/41, re CBCO policy on circulation of Minutes


SW London District Committee for COs

Agenda for 2 meetings in CO Week, October 1945


Northern Pacifist Advisory Bureaux (based Newcastle-upon-Tyne) circulars and correspondence, 1939-1943


Walthamstow and District Advisory Committee for Objectors and Conscripts

Notices re winding-up, 1978


FoR: Circular letter to prospective COs, 1939

FoR: Circular letter to men responding to previous letter, 1939


SoF: The Military Training Bill - An Appeal to the Nation


Socialist Party of Great Britain:

Hints, nd

Questions to COs, nd

Questions to COs, nd [additional to above]

Answers to Questions (R) [?Religious], nd

Answers to Questions (W) [?Workers], nd


Unknown [of dubious origin]:

Papers I-III of mock Tribunal Q&As


CO 9


9.1: WW2+ Serials


CBCO Bulletin, Nos 1-81, Jan1940-Dec 1946 (Complete)



The Objector, Nos 1-31 (Feb 1947-Jul 1957 (?Complete)


The Tribunal (FCO), Vol I, Nos1, 2, 4; Vol II, Nos 5-12; Vol III, Nos 1-7

(Jan 1940 - Jul 1942) [Some misnumbering of both volumes and issues]

The Tribunal (Independent War Resisters' Forum), Vol IV, Nos 1-8, Vol V, Nos 1-12 (Aug 1942 - Sep 1944)


Contact (No Conscription Council), Nos 8-13, 21-24. 26, 27, 29 (Aug 1946 - Apr 1950)

No-Conscription News (No Conscription Council), Spring 1952


Community Broadsheet, March 1940 (photocopy), Summer-Autumn 1941, Jan-May 1942, Autumn-Winter 1942, Summer 1943 + Supplement. Winter 1943-44, Summer-Autumn 1944, Spring-Summer 1945, Spring-Summer 1946, Winter 1947-48  (Series incomplete)


9.2: WW2+ Annual Reports



C.B.C.O. 1941-42

Trials of Conscience, 1942-43

The Fifth Year, 1943-44 (Corder Catchpool)

An End in Sight, 1944-45 (Stephen Thorne)

To the End Persisting, 1945-46 (Alex Wood)

The Bounds of Freedom, 1946-47 (Denis Hayes, Ernest Barnes)

Objection Overruled, 1947-48 (Fenner Brockway)

Forerunners of Peace, 1948-49 (Albert Tomlinson, Henry Carter)

The Third Shadow, 1949-50 (Joseph Brayshaw)

Advice to Anyone, 1950-51 (Clifford Macquire)

As Others See Us, 1951-52 (Bernard Withers)

The Fourteenth Year, 1952-53 (Michael Tippett)

Fifteenth Annual Report, 1953-54 (Reginald Reynolds)

Annual Report, 1954-55

Postscript to a Revolution, 1955-56

Wait for It!, 1956-57

Nineteenth Annual Report, 1957-58

Rights Upheld, 1958-59

A Matter of Hearing, 1960-61 (Bernard Withers)


CBCO Continuing Committee, !960-61


Manchester Sub-Regional Maintenance Fund:

Mutual Aid, 1939-46


No Conscription Council:



9.3: WW2+ CBCO Broadsheets


1. Medical Examination, 1st ed, May 1941; 2nd ed, Nov1941; Addendum, Dec 1941; 3rd ed, Jun 1943; 4th ed, Mar 1950; 5th ed, May 1952; 6th ed, Jun 1954

2. Enlistment for Military Service, 1st ed, May 1941; 2nd ed, May 1942

3. Enrolment for Civil Defence, Ist ed, May 1941; 2nd ed, Mar 1942

4. Non-Fulfilment of a Condition, 1st ed, May 1941; 2nd ed, Nov 1941; 3rd ed, Jun 1942; 4th ed, Jun 1945; 5th ed, Jun 1956

5. Non-Combatant Duties, 2nd ed, May 1941; 3rd ed, Oct 1941; 4th ed, Mar 1942; 5th ed, Oct 1944; 6th ed, Dec 1951; 7th ed, Jun 1955

6. Compulsory Fire-watching (at work), 1st ed, Jun 1941; 2nd ed, Oct 1941; 3rd ed, Mar 1942; Addendum, Oct 1942; 4th ed (under title Fire Guard Duty), May 1944

7. Compulsory Fire-watching (under your Local Authority), 1st ed, Jun 1941; 2nd ed, Apr 1942; Addendum, Oct 1942; 3rd ed, Sep 1943; Addendum, Oct 1943

8. Conscription for War Work, 1st ed, Jun 1941; 2nd ed, Aug 1941; 3rd ed Jun 1942

9. Control of Employment, 1st ed, Jul 1941; 2nd ed, Jul 1942; Addendum, Jun 1945; 3rd ed, Aug 1945

10. Police Court Procedure, 2nd ed, Sep 1941; 3rd ed, May 1943; 4th ed (under title Magistrates' Court Procedure), Jan 1953

11. Work on the Land, 2nd ed Mar 1942; 3rd ed, Mar 1943;

12. Women and Military Service, 1st ed, Jan 1942, 3rd ed, Jan 1942; 4th ed, Jan 1942; 5th ed, Jun 1942

13. Duties of Civil Defence, Nov 1943

14. Part-time Civil Defence, Jun 1944

15. Call-up for the Home Guard, Jun 1944


CO 10


10.1 Appellate Tribunal, Nos 1 (Dec 1939) & 2 (May - Aug 1940 (complete)


10.2 COs Hansard, Nos 1 -20 (complete), 27 Apr 1939 - 5 Dec 1946

Supplementary Index, 22 Jan - 19 Dec 1947


Hansard, HC, 26 Mar 1941 [National Service Bill]

Hansard, HC, 1 Apr 1941 [National Service Bill]

Hansard, HC, 2 Apr 1941 [National Service Bill]

Hansard, HC, 2 Oct 1941 [COs in agricultural work]

Hansard, HC, 2 Oct 1941 [Military Service (Oxford Group)]

Hansard, HC, 27 Jan 1942 [CO Court Martial sentences]

Hansard, HL, extract, 2 Mar 1943 [D of Bedford on the conscientious objector - Strickland Press]

Hansard, HL, extract, 18 Jan 1944, [D of Bedford on conscientious objectors - Strickland Press]

Hansard, HC, extract, 4 Mar 1946 [Rhys Davies on compulsory military service]

Hansard, HC, extract, 18 Nov 1946, [No Conscription amendment to Address on King's Speech - NCC]

Hansard, HC, extracts, 8-15 May 1947 [National Service Bill]

Hansard, HC, extracts, 26 Feb, 1 Mar, 5 Mar 1951 Reserve & Auxiliary Forces Training Bill - CBCO]

Hansard, HC, extract, 23 Jul 1953, [conscientious objectors - CBCO]


10.3 Pamphlets


Bernard Shaw:  On Conscientious Objection - [Extract from Everbody's Political What's What?], CBCO, 1945

A Commentary on the National Service (Armed Forces) Act As it Affects Conscientious Objectors, 2nd ed Revised and Enlarged, CBCO, nd [?1939]

The CO and the National Service Acts - A Guide for Men and Women Conscientious Objectors and their Advisers, CBCO, Dec 1943

Questions to CO's - Important matters to which Conscientious Objectors should direct their thoughts; based on questions actually put by the Tribunals, CBCO, Jan 1944

Robert Pollard: What Can COs Do?, FCO, 1942

Fenner Brockway: The CO and the Community, FCO, nd [?1942]

Douglas Rogers: We Who Sleep under the Full Moon, The Tribunal, 1944


Government and Peace, IBSA, 1939

Alfred Salter: The Faith of a Conscientious Objector, FPC, 1940

What's This "National Service"?, ILP, 1939

Twelve Socialist Objectors: Why We Refuse, ILP, 1940

Richard Lee: The Political Objector - A Statement of His Case, Bakunin Press, Glasgow, 1940


CO 11


11.1: WW2+ Memoirs


Roger BUSH





William Alastair MATHESON


Stanley SMITH



John Charles EDWARDS in Ruth Edwards: Conscientious Objection during National Service in Britain



Robert TOD [extract]



Leonard BIRD


Bernard HICKEN





11.2: WW2+ CO Obituaries/Biographies


Norman Edward Albert ADAMS, Guardian (Brian Morley), 15/3/05; Independent (Glyn Hughes), 15/3/05

John AITKENHEAD: Guardian (Bob Cuddihy), 12/8/98; Times, 13/8/98

Bernard Joseph ARCHARD: Guardian (Gavin Gaughan), 7/5/08

Malcolm ARNOLD:

Laurie BAKER: Guardian (Raekha Prasad), 11/4/07

Philip BARBOUR: Guardian (Roger Barbour), 2/8/10

Kenneth BARNES: Guardian, 22/6/98

Michael BARSLEY: Daily Telegraph (unsigned), 7/9/93

Jessie BASTON: Guardian (David Edmonds), 14/4/09

Maurice Warwick BERESFORD: Independent (Robin Glasscock), 14/1/06

Paul BERRY: Guardian (Marion Shaw), 26/5/99

Walter BIRMINGHAM: Guardian (Eric Moonman), 6/9/04; Times, 13/9/04

Roy BROADBENT: Guardian (Simon Hattenstone, ‘The quiet man’ [Jim Broadbent], 13/1/03

Barry BUCKNELL: Guardian (Dennis Barker), 27 Feb 2003

Frank BLACKABY: Guardian (Frank Barnaby), 20 May 2000

Francis Charles Albert CAMMAERTS: Guardian (MRD Foot), 7/7/06

Sydney CARTER: Guardian (Paul Oestreicher), 17/3/04; Independent, 17/3/04; Times, 18/3/04


Kenneth Sidney COATES: Guardian (John Palmer), 30/6/10

Bob COBBING: Guardian (Robert Sheppard), 7/10/02

Hugo COLE: Guardian (Tom Sutcliffe), 3/3/96


Islwyn Ffowc ELIS: Guardian (D Ben Rees), 22/3/04

David S EVANS: News and Reviews in Astronomy & Geophysics, 46, (3) 3.40

Thomas Francis EVANS: Guardian (Michael Holroyd), 22/1/09

John FAIRFAX: Guardian (Adam Thorpe), 21/1/09

Donald FENTER: Guardian (Howard Horsley), 2/12/09

John FERGUSON: Peacelinks (Lesley Roff), 6-7/89

Christopher FRY (Peter Lennon, 'The gent's not for turning'): Guardian, 8/12/97

William Richard Philip GEORGE: Daily Telegraph, 5/12/06

Hamilton (Tony) GIBSON: Guardian (Donald Rooum & Rufus Segar), 30/4/01

Willie HAMILTON: Guardian (Andrew Roth), 27/1/00 (reneged later in WW2)


Edward HARRIS: Guardian (Graham Bellinger), 20/4/07

Donald HEADEY: Guardian (David, Ian & Richard Headey), 28/7/2010

Hugh Vyvyan  HEBERT: Guardian (Tony Shelton), 18/6/07

Richard HECKSTALL-SMITH: Guardian, 22/12/04

Basil HEMBRY: Guardian (Patrick Wright/Malcolm Harper), 22/4/96

Robert JEFFORD: Guardian (Bill Harpe), 1/12/09

John Robin JENKINS: Scotsman (Isobel Murray), 1/3/05

Aimable Robert JONCKHEERE, Independent (Tim Shallice), 13/10/05; Guardian (Richard Gregory), 21/10/05

David JONES: Guardian (David Thomas), 3/8/05

Jonah JONES: Guardian (Euan Cameron), 14/1/05

Tony KNOWLAND: Guardian (Isabel Knowland), 8/1/07

Basil LANGTON: Guardian (Eric Shorter), 5/6/03

George LEE: Guardian (Ashutosh Khandekar), 3/12/08

Ronald MALLONE: Guardian (Jonathan Mallone & Justin Wark), 11/4/09

James MASON:

Roland Glyn MATHIAS: Guardian (Sam Adams), 17/10/07

Bernard MEADOWS: Guardian (Michael McNay), 15/1/05

Alan MILTON: Guardian (Ian Henderson), 24/5/06

Alan MISTER: Harry Mister, 12/97

Colin Peter MORGAN: Guardian (Miles Salter), 16/7/10

Timothy MOORE: Guardian (Nicholas Marshall), 10/3/03

Leslie MOORHOUSE: Guardian (Tony Shelton), 22/5/06

Robin NORBURY: Guardian (Ian McHugh), 9/4/10

Raymond Morgan O’MALLEY: Guardian, 28/8/96

Robert ORGAN:


Stephen PEET: Guardian (Steve Humphries), 17/2/06

George PERRY-SMITH: Guardian (Christopher Driver), 3/10/03

Oliver POSTGATE: Times, 10/12/08

William Jack PRICHARD:

Ken RICHMOND: Independent (Ian Herbert), 8/8/06

Miles (Peter) RICHMOND: Guardian (Michael McNay & John Berger), 15/10/08

Timothy ROGERS: Guardian (David Marcus & James Pollard), 2/6/06

Ronald H ROSE: Peacelinks (D Ben Rees), 6-7/88

Michael ROWNTREE: Guardian (Michael Barratt Brown & Grigor McLelland) 30/10/07


Derek SENIOR: Guardian (unsigned), 7/12/88

Bernard SMITH: Guardian (Peter Smith), 19/1/06

Cedric SMITH: Times (unsigned), 21/2/02

Tony SMYTHE: Guardian (Peter Townsend & Michael Randle), 9/4/04

Henry STARKEY: Guardian (Claire Cock-Starkey), 26/7/10

Arthur STRAW: Guardian (Andrew Roth, ‘Jack Straw’), 21/3/01

Richard SYMONDS: Guardian (Godfrey Hodgson), 9/8/06; Guardian (Grigor McLelland & Catherine Robinson), 16/8/06

Leslie TARLTON: Newspeace, (Molly Slade), 5/83

Hallam TENNYSON: Guardian (Angela Pleasance & Jill Bacon), 6/1/06

Meredith Wooldridge THRING: Independent (Rob Thring), 30/9/06

Frank TOWNLEY: [? Peacelinks] (Margaret ? Townley), ? 1993

Peter TOWNSEND: Guardian (Tim Hinton), 26/7/06

Stephen Edmund VERNEY: Guardian (Colin Slee), 24/11/09

Richard WAINWRIGHT: Guardian (Michael Meadowcroft), 16/1/03

Max WALTERS: Independent (Peter Marren), 13/12/05

Donald WATSON: Independent (Phil Davison), 24/11/05

Brian WAY: Guardian (Laurence Harbottle), 21/3/06

David WEBSTER: Guardian (Robert Rowland), 12/8/03

Richard WIGGS: Guardian (unsigned), 12 /7/01

John WIGZELL: Guardian (Clare Wigzell), 12/1/06

Raymond WILLIAMS: ‘Class Warrior who became an academic literary giant’, by Illtyd Harrington, Islington Tribune, 4/7/08

Geoffrey WILSON: Independent, 17/7/04

Eldred WRIGHT: Daily Telegraph, 18/5/07



CO 12


Jersey COs


12.1: William GA Gardner: The Story of a Group of British War Resisters who fell into Enemy Hands in the German-Occupied Channel Islands in World War 2, unpublished TS, 1991 (Bound edition)

Ditto (Loose-leaf, slightly shorter copy)


12.2: Bill Gardner: 'Happy Snaps', photocopied pages of photographs, Jersey, Germany and 1960 [1980]

Bill Gardner: 'Potted Biographies', typescript list of Jersey COs, 1980

Jack Nutley: 'Jack - An autobiographical sketch', extract from Oasis, Jul 1989, being a reprint from Quaker Monthly, Sep 1988

Wilfred A Buttery: Jersey 1940-45 under the German Occupation by a Conscientious Objector who was there, unpublished typescript, nd [?1980s]

Victor Graham: Synopsis of 'Close to the Madding Crowd', unpublished typescript, [1989]

Howard Horsburgh: 'Jersey', one chapter of unpublished typescript 'Bloody Conchie', 1989


12.3: Peace News extracts, 26/4/40, 2/7/40, 30/5/41, 15/1/43, 22/1/43, 19/2/43, 1/6/45, 8/6/45, 22/6/45, 13/7/45, 23/6/50

Pacifist Service Bureau: Secretary's Report, in PPU Annual Report for 1940

PPU Executive Minutes, 9 Apr 1946, re Hugh Flinn expenses claim

Denis Hayes: Challenge of Conscience, 1949, photocopy extract re Jersey COs

Rebecca West: The Meaning of Treason, 2nd ed 1952, photocopy extract re Denis John Leister and Eric Reginald Pleasants

Extract from Minutes of PPU National Council, 25/26 Feb 1952 re above

Edwin Foley: Appointment with Mars, FoR, nd [? 1960s]

John Bulloch: The Traitors, 1966, photocopy extract re Eric Pleasants

Roger E Harris: Islanders Deported, photocopy extract

Winston Ramsey: The War in the Channel Islands - Then and Now, 1981, photocopy extract, ch 6, 'The Post-war Period', re Denis John Leister and Eric Pleasants

Jean Jacqmain: "The Occupation of the Channel Islands 1940-1945 - A counter example of nonviolent civilian defence", Studies in Nonviolence, No 9, PPU, Jun 1981

Newscuttings, Times, 22/6/90, Guardian, 26/6/90, 27/6/90 re CITV documentary, Swastika over Britain, 26/6/90

"Precious Archive Documents Stolen", Jersey Evening Post, 17 Dec 1991

"Jersey thieves take incriminating records of German occupation", Guardian, 19 Dec 1991

Newscuttings, Guardian and Times, 2/12/92 re release of WW2 CI files, and mention of James Gilbert

"Channel isle's Nazi hell exposed at last", Express, 20/11/96

Bill Hetherington: "Captive Conscience", Peace Matters, No 16, Winter 1996/7


12.4: Correspondence:


Andrew Golden (Sunday Mirror), 1987-90

Victor Graham [formerly Croft], 1989-90

Howard Horsburgh, 1989-98

William Gardner, 1990-98

J Edouard Slade, 1990-93

Maureen Spinks, 1990

Shamus Wade, 1992

Adam Kemp (Box Productions), 1992-93

Wilf Buttery, 1994


CO 13


13.1: WW2+ Personalia A-J


Horace Alfred ACOMB

PPU Receipt 2/6,19/9/39

Information circular, Conscientious Objectors, citing York Advisory Bureau

Certificate of PPU membership, 18/9/39

Tribunal application, Leeds, 19/12/39

Tribunal result (conditional), 16/1/40

MLNS letter re certificate of CO registration, 16/1/40

MS letter, 19/1/40, Albert (unidentified) to HA re notes of hearing

TS notes of Tribunal hearing, 15/1/40


Peter Charles AMSDEN

Photocopy Tribunal application, London, 20/12/47

Tribunal result (non-combatant), 1/3/48

MLNS letter re certificate of CO registration, 1/3/48

NCC paybook extract, 3/6/48

Release leave certificate, 22/2/50

Release leave railway ticket, 22/2/50


Raymond Alfred ANDREWS

MS memoir, “The development of our pacificism”

Tribunal application (2 copies), 4/11/39

Letters of support, Cecil George Andrews & Wilfred Guy, 26/1/40

Notice of appeal, 26/1/40

Tribunal result, 30/1/40

MLNS letter to call at EE, 4/5/40

MLNS letter directing work in agriculture/forestry, 3/6/40

MLNS notice to Tribunal of RAA’s refusal of specified work, 4/7/40

Notice of Tribunal hearing, 15/7/40

Tribunal result, 16/7/40

MLNS letter threatening removal of CO registration, 18/7/40

Tribunal application, 1/8/40


 Donald John Leo Raymond ARMITAGE

Photocopy of drawing as in Peace News, 11/9/37

Note 6/93, from sister Ursula Sendall re previous item

Photograph, ?1939, of DA in wheelchair

Tribunal application, Manchester, pp1-2 only, 15/4/40

Obituary, Peace News, 8/11/40, 'Donald Armitage'



Tribunal application, Smethwick, 11/5/40

Letter of support, Revd J Clifford Mitchell, 9/5/40

MLNS receipt of application, 13/5/40

Notice of Tribunal hearing, 11/7/40

Tribunal decision, 22/7/40

MS letter, LB/MLNS requesting change of employment from cost clerk to hospital porter, 14/5/41

MS note re difficulties in changing employment, 15/5/41

Letter. MLNS/LB, re change of employment, 19/5/41

Letter, MLNS/LB, requesting interview, 24/5/41

MS note. LB/employer requesting pay increase; MS note, employer/LB, refusing, 13/6/41

MLNS letter re request for change of employment, 6/6/41

MS draft letter, LB/MLNS, 7/6/41

MS letter, LB/MLNS, re request to change employment, 16/6/41

Letter, MLNS/LB, refusing request to change employment, 18/6/41

Letter, MLNS/LB, refusing request to change employment, nd

MLNS notice of hearing for 11/7/41, 5/7/41

MLNS letter to Revd J C Mitchell, 14/7/41

MLNS letter adjourning hearing, 16/7/41

Notice of appeal hearing for 25/7/41, 21/7/41

MLNS letter requesting interview, 31/7/41

MS letter requesting result of appeal, 17/9/41

MLNS letter re appeal, 19/9/41

MLNS letter giving permission to leave present employment, 17/11/41

MLNS form specifying change, 17/11/41

MLNS letter enquiring re employment, 7/1/42

MS reply reporting change to cost account clerk job, 13/1/41

MLNS letter re change, 21/1/42

Referral to Tribunal, 23/1/42

Notice of hearing for 2/2/41, 27/1/42

Tribunal decision (conditions: land/fulltime CD/hospital), 5/2/42

Notice of decision, 5/2/42

MLNS letter requesting details of employment, 4/3/42

MS reply notifying work as hospital porter, 10/3/42

MLNS response re work, 19/3/42

Letter from FAU, 17/5/42

FAU offer of interview for 26/9/42, 22/9/42

FAU letter reporting passing of medical examination, 29/9/42

FAU letter of acceptance with conditions, to start, 4/11/42, 27/10/42

MS letter to MLNS, 12/11/42

Notice of hearing on 16/2/43, 9/2/43

Tribunal decision, allowing transfer to FAU, 16/2/43

Notice of decision, 18/2/43

MLNS release from register, 10/7/46

MLNS letter of release, 10/7/46


Alexander (Alan) Henry BELL

MLNS registration before moving from Peterborough, 27/1/45

Certificate of CO registration, 1946

MS note for Tribunal, nd

Tribunal application, 17/2/51

Letter of support from Alan J Watson, 7/10/51

Letter of support from Grace Fielder, 17/10/51

Tribunal decision (removed from register), 19/10/51

Notice of appeal, 9/11/51

Appellate decision (conditional – hospital), 11/12/51

Letter, Mount Vernon Hospital, job offer, x-ray porter, 11/1/52

CO registration card after moving to Hillingdon, 4/12/53

MLNS letter of release from CO register, 24/3/54


Raymond George BONIFACE

Local newscutting (paper & date uncertain, ?1940), of S.W. Tribunal hearing

Letter, 23/3/40, HC Williams (initialled Cyril Wright) to RB, offering fruit delivery work

Letter, 27/10/41, Cyril Maudsley to RB, rejecting application as chauffeur

Letter, 30/3/45, MLNS to RB, stating freedom to take up any work

Certificate of CO registration (unconditional), 7/12/45


Alexander BRYAN

Copy letters 19-20/3/40 supporting Tribunal application

Tribunal application, Leeds, 20/3/40

Copy of covering letter, Alice Walker, re notes of Tribunal hearing

TS notes of Tribunal hearing, 23/4/40

Fuller copy of previous

Tribunal result (removed from register), 24/4/40

MLNS letter re certificate of registration, 24/4/40

Copy letter AB to Mr Long 25/4/40, re hearing

Letter, 7/5/40, JR Whiting York Meeting to Reginald Cox, Sheffield Meeting re AB's appeal

Notice of appeal, 10/5/40

Letter, 21/6/40, from Sheffield Young Friends to Appeal tribunal explaining letter, 19/4/40, to Leeds tribunal

Appeal result (non-combatant duties), 10/10/40

Copy letter, 9/41, to whom it may concern, re non-compliance with civil defence duties

Application for post-prison appeal, c 5/42

Letter, 18/5/42, JW Saunders to Appeal tribunal supporting AB

Appeal result (conditional), 26/5/42

MLNS covering letter re release from conditional obligation, 19/11/46

Notice re release from conditional obligation, 19/11/46


Dennie Willoughby BUGLER

Newscutting (paper & date uncertain ?1940 of S.W. Tribunal hearing


Clifford George COOK

Tribunal application, London, 19/4/40

MLNS letter re fresh certificate of provisional CO registration, 24/4/40

Notice, 22/8/40, of Tribunal hearing, 28/8/40

Letter, 28/8/40, Sidney Franklin to CC re Tribunal result

MLNS covering letter, 30/8/40, re Tribunal result

Tribunal result (conditional), 29/8/40

FoR broadsheet, Service in the Community, 10/7/40

PSU letter, 16/9/40, to CC re PSU work

PSU application form

PSU broadsheet on function and work

CPFLU letter, 26/9/40, to CC re work

CPFLU leaflet

CPFLU application form

MLNS notice, 23/9/40, re employment exchange advice on finding work

MLNS letter, 8/10/40, requesting information re work secured

Certificate, 7/8/45, of CO registration

MLNS covering letter, 14/5/46, re release from conditional obligation

Notice, 14/5/46, re release from conditional obligation


George W COX

Copy statement to Tribunal, 28/2/40 (unconditional registration)



Daily Express, 3/5/39, 'Conchie No 1'

Az Est (Hungary), 6/5/39, 'Tobbezer angol fiatalember es fiatal leany a kotelezo katonai szolgalat ellen'

Az Est (Hungary), 6/5/39, ' "Masok harcolhatnak, en nem harcolok" '

Letter, 6/5/39, Arthur Rablen to CD re previous two items

Cornishman & Cornish Telegraph, 10/5/39, 'To correspondents'

Cornishman & Cornish Telegraph, 10/6/39, 'Fiddling like modern Neros'


Derek Arthur FANE

Tribunal application (London), (unconditional registration), 11/1/44

Memoir, 7/93 re hearing, 16/3/44


Leslie James GORE

Tribunal application (London), (pp 1-2 only), 15/9/41

Local observer's report of hearing, 7/10/41

Extracts from Appendices to Burnham Report 1945 referring to war service equivalence to teaching service for purposes of teachers' salary scales and superannuation rights.

Letter from MLNS 24/10/56 reporting personal documents destroyed, but giving details of Tribunal registration and release date.

Letter from LCC 1/2/57 re alternative service qualifying under Burnham Report

Letter from NUT 23/6/58 re alternative service not qualifying under Burnham Report


William GREEN

Circular to customers of Reliance Window Cleaning Service, Chingford, Essex), nd, explaining prospective inability to continue service due to refusal of recognition by Tribunal

Notice, 3/9/46, of release from Tribunal conditions

Notice, 3/9/46, of requirement to comply with any relevant Essential Work Order



Tribunal application (North West), 23/12/39

Notice, 15/2/40, of Tribunal hearing, 23/2/40

Letter of support from Murdo McLennan, Congregational Minister, 21/2/40

Transcript of hearing, 23/2/40

Certificate of CO registration, 23/2/40

Tribunal decision (conditional), 27/2/40

Letter from MLNS re non-compliance with condition, 22/3/41

MS letter to MLNS re refusal to register under Civil Defence (Compulsory Enrolment) Order, 12/11/41

Letter from MLNS re non-compliance with condition, 12/11/41

Letter from Liverpool prison to wife, 8/1/42

MS letter to Lancaster ILP, 1/2/44

3 MS letters to Lancaster Guardian, 12/3/44, 2/7/44, 16/7/44

Notice of release from condition, 6/6/46

Notice of requirement to comply with any relevant Essential Work Order, 6/6/46

Notice, 17/6/46, of cessation of Essential Work Order, 25/6/46


Brenda Lucy HARLE

Certificate of CO registration (conditional), 9/4/43 [copy]


William Edward HARLE

Tribunal application (South Western), 20/11/43 [copy]

Tribunal decision (conditional), 31/1/44 [copy]

Cover letter for registration certificate, 31/1/44 [copy]


Henry George HAYDEN

Notice, 24/4/41, of provisional CO registration

MLNS letter, 28/4/41, re inclusion in Schedule of Reserved Occupations

Notice, 21/8/42, of cessation from reserved occupation

Tribunal application (London), 19/4/41

Notice, 28/8/42, of Tribunal hearing, 4/9/42

Tribunal decision (conditional), 8/9/42

Notice, 8/9/42, re present occupation

Certificate, 8/12/42, of CO Registration

Notice, 6/6/46, of release from Tribunal conditions

Notice, 6/6/46, of requirement to comply with any relevant Essential Work Order


MS copy Tribunal statement, apparently of HGH's brother

MS grounds of appeal by HGH's brother

MS note of evidence by HGH on behalf of brother

MS note of Tribunal finding re HGH's brother



MS diary, Oxford & Wormwood Scrubs prisons, 1943


Harold Reginald Roy HISCOCKS

Tribunal application (Southern), 1/7/40

Letter, 4/5/40, FH Coles, as evidence to Tribunal

Statement, Knowle & Totterdown (Bristol) Christian Pacifist Group, as evidence to Tribunal

Notice of appeal against Local Tribunal, 18/7/40

Appeal Tribunal result (conditional), 27/11/40

Notice, 6/12/40, re present occupation

Certificate, 7/7/41, of CO registration

Notice, 1/5/46, of release from Tribunal conditions

Notice, 1/5/46, of requirement to comply with any relevant Essential Work Order


Hugh Morris HUGHES

MLNS letter, 8/8/40, re inclusion in Schedule of Reserved Occupations

Military Service (Hardship) Cttee notice, 2/5/41, re hearing of Appeal against Part-Time Fire Prevention Duties

MS(H)C result (refused), 7/5/41

Letter (in Welsh) solicitors to HMH, 25/9/41

Local press cutting re prosecution and fines on HMH and Griffin WILLIAMS for refusing firewatching duties in quarry

Local press cutting (in Welsh) re above

Tribunal application (in Welsh) (Cardiff), 2/7/43

Covering letter, 8/7/43, re Tribunal result

Tribunal result (conditional), 8/7/43

Notice, 8/7/43, re present occupation

MLNS letter, 4/6/46, re release group date



2 letters, 23/10/45 & 5/11/45 (Feltham Prison, Middx), GAH to Jimmie Brown, re Appeal against Local Tribunal


Thomas Herbert ILLINGWORTH

Tribunal application (Fulham), 26/2/40

Letter as character witness, AJ Fitch, 8/3/40

Notice of Tribunal hearing, 8/7/40

Notice of Tribunal result (non-combatant)

Letter re Appellate Tribunal, 4/11/40

Notice of Appellate Tribunal hearing, 28/11/40

Letter THI to PPU explaining Appellate Tribunal result (conditional), 23/2/91


Ronald Ian JEFFREY

Tribunal application (2 pages only), 22/3/40

?Yorkshire Evening Post, 11/9/41, 'Prison for Objector' - At York Magistrates' Court, six months' sentence plus £25 fine for failing to comply with court order for medical examination

Christmas card from CBCO, signed Fenner Brockway, Stuart Morris, Denis Hayes et al

Letters RIJ in Pacifist, Oct 1971 & Jun 1976, re CO experience

Letter RIJ to Radio Times (? np), 21/11/91 re CO experience

Correspondence RIJ/PPU re CO material, 26/5-8/9/92


13.2: WW2+ Personalia K-Z


Alec William Raleigh KEAY

Letter of Welcome as member of APF, 24/6/40

Copy correspoence from Sir Richard Acland MP and Post Warden at Upper Brook St, Westminster, re dedication of PSU firefighters, 19-20/9/40

Certificate of provisional CO registration

PC acknowledging FAU application

Tribunal application (Fulham), 9/5/40

Letter as character witness, Revd FR ?Dickinoor, 19/10/40

Letter as character witness, Allan D Worcester, 19/10/40

Letter of moral support, John, 21/10/40

Letter of moral support, ?, 21/10/40

Notice of Tribunal result, 23/10/40, (non-combatant)

Notice re medical examination, 4/12/40

Medical questionnaire re above

MS & TS copies of letter re registration and medical examination, 2/12/40

Letter as character witness, JJ Burke, 2/12/40

MLNS letter asserting expiry of time limit for appeal, 19/12/40

Letter AWRK to MLNS denying receipt of Tribunal case papers, 23/10/40

MLNS covering letter re second copy of case papers, 3/1/41

Notice of Appeal, 8/1/41

MLNS letter re Appeal, 2/5/41

Notice of Appellate Tribunal hearing, 23/5/41

Notice of Appellate Tribunal result (conditional)

MLNS correspondence re obtaining suitable work, 31/5/41-12/11/42



FAU/FAU INTERNATIONAL SERVICE member's record book, 1954-56 [copy]

Undated TS of article in ISSI magazine on taboo on pacifism in FAU



Order of Appellate Tribunal (conditional), 18/9/41 [copy]



Letter to James Brown re 2 Courts-Martial as airman turned CO, 28/8/44

JB's notes re voluntary enlistment and subsequent change of feelings

Letter to JB from FAS' brother James W Sherry in response to letter to FAS' mother, 4/9/44

2 letters to JB re C-M, 18/9/44

C-M statement, 18/9/44

Letter JWS to JB, 22/9/44

Letter to JB re C-M result, (3 months), 23/9/44

Letter to JB re transfer to prison, 26/9/44

3 letters FAS' mother G Sherry to JB re Tribunal, 4-22/10/44

MS and TS copies of Tribunal statement


Frederick Clifford SHUTTLEWORTH

Tribunal application (Midlands), 5/12/43 [copy]


Robert Howard Mckenzie STEWART

Tribunal application (North Western), 10/4/40

Letter as character witness, Dr E?V Fitch, 21/6/43

Letter as character witness, Revd G Worsley, 24/6/43

Tribunal application shows non-combatant (rec RAMC) result, 24/6/43

CBCO letter re status of RAMC personnel, 5/7/43

CBCO Broadsheet 5, 'Non-Combatant Duties'

Notice of appeal, 15/7/43

MLNS letter re appeal, 15/7/43

CBCO letter re RAMC etc, 19/7/43

Notice of Appellate Tribunal hearing, 12/8/43

Notice of Appellate Tribunal result (conditional), 12/8/43

Medical Defence Union letter re definition of EMS hospital, 13/11/44

MLNS letter re above, 16/11/44

MDU letter re above, 22/11/44

BMA letter re above, 20/12/44

CBCO letter re release from conditions, 1/2/46

Central Medical War Cttee letter re above, 25/4/46

Certificate of Registration as CO, 15/3/46

MLNS notices of release from conditions, 23/12/46


Owen Wallace TAYLOR

Reprint by Conscience, Autumn 1998, of report in Harrow Observer, 20/9/41, of prosecution in Wealdstone Magistrate's Court for refusing to comply with Court order for med examination (12 months' imprisonment)



Copy of CBCO letter re Court-Martial as airman becoming CO, 3/1/44

Copy of CBCO letter to JW's father re above, 3/1/44

Letter to James A Brown asking him to be C-M Friend, 5/1/44

Copy Summary of Evidence asserting absence without leave since 28/1/42 and deficiency in articles of clothing.

MS & TS notes of interview by JAB, 7/1/44 (reference to different summary of evidence from that above - mention of voluntary surrender)

MS notes of interview by JAB, 13/1/44

Letter to JAB enc C-M statement, c 15/1/44

Letter JAB to to JW acknowledging above, 16/1/44

Letter JAB to RAF CO re C-M date, 20/1/44

Letter 21/1/44 to JAB notifying C-M date, 28/1/44

Copy Charge Sheet, alleging desertion 28/1/42-15/12/43

TS copy of C-M statement

MS & TS copies of Advisory Tribunal statement, 7/2/44

Letter as character witness, Matt Stewart, 19/3/44

Letter as character witness, Sapper Neil Kelly, nd

Letter, 28/11/44, JAB to Tribunal referring to Advisory Tribunal's recommendation 24/3/44 for discharge with direction to coal mining (reason for further Tribunal hearing  was ?application for variation of conditions)



Copy of CBCO letter re dismissal of Tribunal application, 30/1/56


CO 14


14.1: Advisory Committee on Conscientious Objectors


Extract from NCCL Annual Report, 1963 re 2 airmen imprisoned for attempting to form CND group, having developed conscience re nuclear weapons

Hampstead Group, Committee of 100: 'Why Did You Become a Serviceman?' [1964]

Extract from Peace News, 14 July 1967, re hearing by Appellate Tribunal of SAC Trevor Auty, turned Jehovah's Witness after one year in RAF.

Extract from Guardian, 5 Nov 1969, re Corporal Roger Keith Phillips reduced to ranks for going AWOL because he 'could not in all honesty open fire on unarmed people'.

CBCO: Procedure for Application for Discharge on Conscience Grounds, Feb 1972

Eric R Sly: 'Conscientious Objection Today', Young Quakers, March 1973

BWNIC: Some Information for Discontented Soldiers [1975]

Extract from QR&AI on procedures for CO discharge [Jul 1975]

Letter from Craig Jackson to 'Ken' [?Weller] re he & 'Ian' hoping to be discharged from the Army on complaining of indoctrination to obey orders without question [nd ?1970s]

Extract from Guardian, 5 Nov 1974 re Marine Chris Byrne awaiting discharge as CO

Extract from Newspeace, Mar 1977 by Stephen Rowland re his Army officer discharge as CO in 1971

Extracts from the Pacifist, Jul 1976,by Stephen Rowland [fuller version of above] and Stephen M re his soldier discharge as CO in Jun 1976

Correspondence re Army Officer discharge as CO of Michael Biggs [1979]

Correspondence with Nicholas Thompson re possible soldier discharge as CO [1979]

Correspondence with TUC re latter's [negative] views on COs in the armed forces and the workplace [1979]

Correspondence with MoD re ACCO [1979]

Letter to MoD re Armed Forces reservists [1979 - ?no reply]

Letter from MoD notifying Army officer discharge as CO of WJ Ainslie [1980]

CBCO: Information for Men and Women in the Armed Forces [1980]

Correspondence re Kieran Crowder (also mentioning 'Robin') re possible airmen discharge as COs [1983]

Guardian: 'Bomb order refused', 2 Jan 1987 [re incident in 1956]

Correspondence from MoD re Austin Vince, Army officer discharged via ACCO [1989-90]

PPU: letter to Independent  re regular Armed Forces CO discharge [1991]

The Times: 'Objectors should be told rights', [1991]

AI: re regular Armed Forces COs [1991]

Correspondence with MoD re Finlay MacLennan, refused Army officer discharge by ACCO (includes Memo on details of ACCO) [1991]

Letter to Peter Kilfoyle MP re his interest in ACCO [1994]

Correspondence with MoD re Richard Bennett, Marine discharged via ACCO [1996]

Extract from Peace Matters, Autumn 1996, re above

Extract from Civil Liberties: Cases & Materials, 4th ed 1995, SH Bailey, DJ Harris & BL Jones, Butterworths, re ACC0

At Ease: Conscientious Objection, 1998

PPU: Information for members of British Armed Forces, 1998

Extract from QR&AI re procedures for CO discharge [1986]

Letter, Army Land Command to At Ease re reservist CO [?Regular Reserve/TA], 2000

Judy Kerr: Breaking Ranks’, Big Issue, 26 May-1 Jun 2003


14.2: Vic Williams


David Pallister: 'Deserter who plans to fight for peace', Guardian, 31/1/91

Daily Star: 'Shame of deserter', 2/3/91

Observer: 'Anti-Gulf-war deserter surrenders after 72 days', 10/3/91

Vic Williams Defence Campaign: circular, 17/6/91

Gwyn Gwyntopher: circular, 14/7/91

Vic Qilliams Defence Campaign: Drop the Charges, Aug 1991

Vic Williams Defence Fund: circular, Aug 1991

Vic Williams Defence Fund: circular, Sep 1991 (revised version of preceding)

Vic Williams Defence Campaign: Drop the Charges, Sep 1991

Heather Mills: 'Soldier faces life sentence for Gulf War refusal', Independent on Sunday, 8/9/91

Christopher Lockwood: ‘Gunner denies going absent to avoid serving in Gulf War’, Daily Telegraph, 9/9/91

Daily Telegraph: 'Soldier denies Gulf War desertion", 10/9/91

Charles Oulton: 'Soldier defends Gulf War protest", Independent, 11/9/91

Times: 'Soldier wrote to CO while on run', 11/9/91

Tim Butcher: 'Soldier tells why he went AWOL', Daily Telegraph, 11/9/91

FoR England: Letter to Chief of Defence Staff, 11/9/91

Message, FoR to Bill Hetherington, 11/9/91

Tim Butcher: 'Gulf War objector given 14 months' jail for desertion', Daily Telegraph, 12/9/91

Will Bennett: 'Gulf protest soldier gets 14 months for desertion', Independent, 12/9/91

Peter Victor: 'Deserter jailed 14 months after anti-war campaign', The Times, 12/9/91

Jamie Dettmer: 'How peace army was handed a propaganda victory', The Times, 12/9/91

David Gardner, 'Anger at 14-month sentence for Gulf deserter', Daily Mail, 12/9/91

Daily Mail: 'Lucky deserter', 12/9/91

Vic Williams Defence Campaign: circular, Sep 1991

Guardian: 'Amnesty backs Gulf deserter', 3/10/91

Vic Williams Defence Campaign: Release Vic Now, Oct 1991

PPU: letter to VWDC re preceding, 23/10/91

Manchester Evening News: 'Gulf Deserter in "Civvy" Jail', 4/11/91

Vic Williams Defence Campaign: Keeping up the Pressure, Nov 1991

FoR: Silent Vigil in Support of Vic Williams, Nov 1991

Vic Williams Defence Campaign: Vic Williams to be Released, Apr, 1992

Observer: 'Soldier freed', 19/4/92