CARL von OSSIETZKY
German journalist and pacifist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace for 1935.
In 1912 Ossietzky joined the German Peace Society but was conscripted into the army for the duration of World War I. In 1920 he became the society's secretary in Berlin.Ossietzky helped to found the Nie Wieder Krieg (No More War) organization in 1922 and became editor of the Weltbühne, a liberal political weekly, in 1927, where in a series of articles he unmasked the Reichswehr (German army) leaders' secret preparations for rearmament. Accused of treason, Ossietzky was sentenced in November 1931 to 18 months' imprisonment but was granted amnesty in December 1932.
Ossietzky opposed German militarism and political extremism of both the left and right. By the time Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January 1933, Ossietzky had resumed his editorship, in which he uncompromisingly attacked the Nazis. Steadfastly refusing to flee Germany, he was arrested on February 28, 1933, and sent to Papenburg concentration camp. After enduring three years of incarceration and torture in the camps, Ossietzky was transferred in May 1936 to a prison hospital in Berlin by the German government, which was growing alarmed at the international publicity his case had begun to attract.
On November 24, 1936, Ossietzky was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for 1935. The award was interpreted as an expression of worldwide censure of Nazism. Hitler's reply was a decree forbidding Germans to accept any Nobel Prize. Though not allowed to leave Germany, Ossietzky was permitted to move to a private sanatorium where, his health broken, he died of illness.